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Racial Profiling: 

Guidance regarding the Use of Race by Federal Law Enforcement Agencies, U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division (June 2003). HTML.

Racial Profiling: "What Does the Data Mean?". A Practitioner's Guide to Understanding Data Collection & Analysis. By Captain Ronald L. Davis, Region Vice President, National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives (NOBLE).
Link »

Federal Legislative Proposals:

  1. End Racial Profiling Act of 2001 (Introduced in the Senate)[S.989]
  2. End Racial Profiling Act of 2001 (Introduced in the House)[H.R.2074]
  3. Racial Profiling Prohibition Act of 2001 (Introduced in the House)[H.R.965]
  4. Racial Profiling Prohibition Act of 2001 (Introduced in the House)[H.R.1907]
  5. Reasonable Search Standards Act (Introduced in the Senate)[S.799]
  6. Civil Rights for International Travelers Act (Introduced in the House)[H.R.1996]

Profiling policies from various law enforcement agencies and associations.

Current Legal Issues in Racial Profiling: 2000 Update, by Aimee B. Anderson and Carl Milazzo, Police Attorneys, a paper presented at the IACP Legal Officers Section meeting in San Diego, California in November 2000.

Developments in Racial Profiling Litigation, a presentation by Donald Zoufal, Esq. at an annual conference of muncipal attorneys in Aug. 2000.

The "Traffic Stops Statistics Study Act," passed the House Judiciary Committee on March 1, 2000; it also passed the House in the last session of Congress, and directs the Attorney General to conduct a study of traffic stops by state and local law enforcement officers. It would include the race, ethnicity and age of the occupants(s); whether a search followed and why; and the results of the stop. Participation in the study would be voluntary. Text of H.R. 1443.

Race Relations in Police Operations: A Legal and Ethical Perspective, by Carl Milazzo, Police Attorney. A paper presented at the IACP Legal Officers Section meeting in Charlotte, 1999 and updated in Feb. 2000 for a presentation to the Arizona Assn. of Chiefs of Police.

Legal Issues in the Use of Race in Criminal Investigations and Prosecutions, by FBI Agent Mike Brooks. A paper presented at the IACP Legal Officers Section meeting in Charlotte, 1999.

Several states, since 1999, have passed new laws requiring law enforcement officers to keep racial and other demographic data on traffic stops. Additionally, President Clinton issued an executive directive asking federal law enforcement agencies to keep data on ethnicity, gender and race. Most recently, President Bush approved the issuance, by the U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, of a guidance document on the use of race as a factor in stops and searches by federal law enforcement agencies. To view those laws and those directives, click here.

Traffic Stop Data Collection Policies for State Police, 1999, U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics. Provides findings from the 1999 Survey of State Police Agencies Information Inventory. Discussed are the circumstances under which demographic data are collected for traffic-related contacts and violations. 2001 update.

The New Jersey Attorney General issued an Interim Report on State Police racial profiling in April 1999 and a Final Report in July, 1999. Click HERE to view the Overview and Highlights of the Final Report. A consent decree was obtained, which is on the Justice Dept. website at

Massachusetts Supreme Court, in an effort to thwart profiling, rejects evidence seized in a traffic stop, where the defendant was ordered out of a car without an articulable reason. Comm. v. Gonsalves, 429 Mass. 658, 711 N.E.2d 108, 1999 Mass. Lexis 381.

Law review and journal articles on Race Relations & The Police, Profiling.

»Links to proposed legislation, or links to websites that advocate the enactment of specific legislation, are listed for educational purposes only. Unless stated otherwise, AELE does not endorse any proposed or pending legislation by maintaining these links.



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